Department of Human Development and Psychological Counseling, Reich College of Education
Graduate Courses in Human Development & Psychological Counseling (HPC)
Lee Baruth, Department Chair
HPC 5000. Internship in Public Schools (1-9).On Demand. Designed for school counselor graduate students who do not possess an "A" teaching license and who must have an extended internship in a public school setting prior to obtaining an "M" license. Each internship is arranged and coordinated on an individual basis consistent with state policies. This course will be limited to students accepted into the school counselor program and the course credit will not count toward the graduate degree. Graded on an S/U basis. [Dual-listed with HPC 4900.)
HPC 5100. Counseling Techniques for Teachers of Young Adolescents (3).On Demand. Acquaint teachers of early adolescents with appropriate counseling techniques, interactional processes, and resource materials.
HPC 5110. Multicultural Counseling (3).F;S;SS. An exploration of counseling issues related to a culturally diverse client population.
HPC 5120. Introduction to Clinical Mental Health Counseling (3).F. An introduction to the issues, functions and scope of the work being done in various human service agencies. Helping approaches with selected client populations and related professional concerns will be examined. Prerequisite: registration is restricted to Clinical Mental Health Counseling majors.
HPC 5130. Women's Issues in Counseling (3).S.Even-numbered years. Based on study of historical, social, multicultural, and familial influences on the development of women, this course addresses counseling issues related to women's identity, self-esteem and relationships.
HPC 5140. Psychological and Educational Testing (3).F;S. A study of representative psychological and educational tests/inventories including the rationale which underlies testing.
HPC 5190. Helping Skills in Student Affairs Practice (3).F. An introduction and overview to the role of the student affairs educator as a facilitator of individual and group development. Methods of helping, group facilitation skills, and leading and managing groups appropriate to student affairs functions will be developed.
HPC 5210. Life and Career Planning (3).F;S. Assists counselors and others in various work settings to attain knowledge and skills essential in helping individuals to consider possible careers and life style options. Approaches to career development, sources of informational materials, and the life planning needs of particular clientele are emphasized.
HPC 5220. Counseling Theory and Techniques (3).F;S. Several selected theories of counseling will be studied in depth, emphasizing primary sources. Other theories will be studied, giving breadth to this area of knowledge. Interrelationships of personality development, learning and "problems" will be stressed.
HPC 5225. The Helping Relationship (3).F;S;SS. This course examines the philosophy of the therapeutic relationship, basic counseling skills and the developmental process of the counseling relationship. Through experiential activity, this course will develop in students the effective counseling skills necessary to sustain the counseling relationship from the initial interview to the termination of the relationship with individuals, family/couples, and in group modalities. The focus of this course is on developing students' presence, awareness, and use of effective counseling skills and basic active listening skills. Students will learn, observe, evaluate, and demonstrate effective counseling behaviors through the use of counseling skills practice (with other students), presentation of video/audiotaped sessions, and the evaluation of practice sessions/skills of classmates under the supervision of the instructor and other advanced students. Grade of a B or higher is necessary to enroll in HPC 5900 and HPC 6900. Prerequisite for HPC 5900 and HPC 6900.
HPC 5270. Theories of Marriage and Family Therapy I (3).F. A study from the systemic perspective of the historical development, theoretical and empirical foundations, and current issues in marriage and family therapy. Major models of marriage, couple and family therapy are surveyed.
HPC 5271. Theories of Marriage and Family Therapy II (3).S. A study of a selected number of theories concerning marriage and family therapy. Class will involve role play, group discussion, and demonstration of marriage and family therapy. Prerequisite: HPC 5270.
HPC 5272. Individual and Family Development (3).F;S;SS. An introduction to theories of individual and family development across the lifespan. Emphasis will be given to clinical issues impacting individual and family development including behavioral crises, theories of personality, cultural implications, situational and environmental factors, wellness, and addictive behaviors.
HPC 5273. Mediation and Divorce Therapy (3).F. Even-numbered years. Recognizing divorce as a frequent phenomenon in families, this course is designed to study the history, effects, and re-growth as a result of divorce. In addition to a review of current literature, there will be a concentration on pertinent, long-term studies of divorces, and the results and effects on children, as well as viewing proposed models of mediation and therapy for persons who choose to pursue such assistance.
HPC 5274. Substance Abuse in Family Systems (3).S. An examination of the range of substance abuse issues impacting the family system. Topics will include etiology of substance abuse and addiction within the family, impact upon members of the system and its dynamics, intervention and treatment approaches, and long-term recovery issues. Special attention will be given to the topics of co-dependency and core issues of adult children of dysfunctional families. Prerequisites: HPC 5270, HPC 5560, or permission of the instructor.
HPC 5275. Systemic Family Therapy Institute (3-9).On Demand. Variable content. Barring duplication, a student may repeat the course and earn up to a total of nine semester hours. This annual summer institute is designed to provide graduate students and working professionals with an opportunity for in-depth exploration of cutting-edge topics within the marriage and family therapy field. Graded on an S/U basis.
HPC 5310. Introduction to Professional School Counseling (3).F. The study of comprehensive, developmental school counseling programs; appropriate counselor roles (counseling, coordination, and consultation); and methods of providing services to students, families, and school personnel within a collaborative framework.
HPC 5315. Elementary/Middle Grades School Counseling (3).On Demand. Designed primarily for counselors who plan to work or are currently working in elementary or middle grades settings. Emphasis is given to philosophy and organization; the role and functions of elementary and middle grades counselors; components of comprehensive elementary and middle grades school counseling programs; and special issues related to theory and practice of working with children and adolescents.
HPC 5340. Research in College Student Development and Student Affairs Practice (3).S. This introductory research course is designed to provide opportunities to review, evaluate, conduct and disseminate educational research related to the practice of Student Affairs. This course is a prerequisite for HPC 6330.
HPC 5380. College Students and Their Environments (3).F. A study of characteristics, needs, and goals of college students, including selected populations; appraisal and effect of college environments and other socio-cultural factors on students; and implications for Student Affairs Practice.
HPC 5410. Introduction to Student Affairs (3).F. An introduction and overview of student affairs functions within institutions of higher education emphasizing the history, student affairs programming models, professional standards and ethics in professional conduct, professional associations, organizational models and staffing patterns, and issues and trends in student affairs practice.
HPC 5440. Student Affairs and the Great Outdoors (3).S.Even-numbered years. The purpose of this course is to explore the connections between student affairs and outdoor education/experiential education. This course is required for the concentration in College Outdoor Program Administration under the Master of Arts degree in College Student Development. Students will have the opportunity to experience hands on training in theoretical approaches to integrating outdoor experiences into their work in student affairs.
HPC 5441. Historical Perspectives on College Student Support Services (3).S. This course is a semester-long study of comparative educational systems that culminates in a two week learning abroad experience to the United Kingdom. Participants will learn about the history of higher education in the UK and current program offerings at campuses in each of these cities while taking time to participate in local culture and attractions.
HPC 5450. Learning Communities (3).On Demand. The purpose of this course is to introduce students to the concepts on Learning Communities. This will be accomplished through an understanding of the history and models of learning communities, constituents, and the institutional priorities. The academic and student affairs contexts and cultures will be explored. Additionally, students will have the opportunity to work on a project designing a learning community.
HPC 5460. Professional Practice in College Student Development (3-9).SS. The purpose of this course is for students to gain full-time experience in a Student affairs office prior to their internship. The practical experience is geared towards increasing their skills, introducing them to new cultures and environments and allowing them to explore various aspects of Student Affairs. Sites must be approved by the instructor. May be repeated for a total credit of nine semester hours upon the approval of the department chair.
HPC 5500. Independent Study (1-4).On Demand.
HPC 5530-5549. Selected Topics (1-4).On Demand. Subject matter may vary from term to term depending on student interest and need. A student may enroll more than once in a selected topics course provided that the content does not duplicate that of the previous course.
HPC 5560. The Addictive Process (3).F;S. An examination of sociological and psychological contributions to alcohol and drug addiction and abuse in our society. The addictive process and its impact on the individual and society are described, as well as treatment and preventive program efforts. Students will also examine their own feelings and attitudes about alcohol and drug use and abuse. [Dual-listed with HPC 4570.]
HPC 5570. Counseling the Addicted Person (3).F;S. An in-depth study of the various intervention and therapeutic models utilized with addicted clients, including individual, group, and family counseling approaches. Unique aspects, demands, and imperatives of the addiction vis-à-vis the helping relationship are discussed. Prerequisite: HPC 5560.
HPC 5680. Counseling the Aging (3).On Demand. This course is designed to aid graduate students interested in gerontology to understand and appreciate aging as a lifelong process. Emphasis is also given to various effects of aging-physiological, psychological, financial, etc. Counseling strategies and understanding family dynamics pertaining to aging will also be studied.
HPC 5700. Teaching Sex Education Within a Family Context (3).F. This course is designed to help health educators learn and develop strategies for teaching family living and sexuality to different age groups such as elementary, middle grades, secondary and adults. Topics to be included are reproductive anatomy, physiology, STD and AIDS, varying cultural differences, and gaining community support. Each student will be responsible for developing appropriate curricula materials for the age group she/he will be teaching.
HPC 5710. Helping the Troubled Employee (3).On Demand. An introduction to employee assistance programming in a wide variety of settings. Historical development, current issues and trends, program structure, implementation, administration and evaluation are stressed. Visiting practitioners, student projects, and field trips will emphasize practical skills development in this helping model based in the work setting.
HPC 5751. Ethics and Law in Professional Practice (3).S. A study of current legal and ethical issues confronting the college student development specialist or counselor in practice. Topics include authority and environment of ethics and law, ethical decision analysis, and topical issues such as student safety, liability, confidentiality, privacy, libel and slander, due process, and other related ethical and legal concepts. The course goal is to provide future practitioners with a working knowledge of ethical and legal issues so as to inform good practice.
HPC 5752. Legal and Ethical Issues in Clinical Mental Health Counseling (3).S. A study of legal and ethical issues confronting community agency, mental health and rehabilitation counselors. Topics include moral reasoning; tort liability; confidentiality; privacy; libel; slander; due process; federal and state rules, regulations, and statutes; and other important concepts and actions resulting in legal and ethical questions. Prerequisites: HPC 5120 and registration is restricted to Clinical Mental Health Counseling majors.
HPC 5753. Legal and Ethical Issues in Marriage and Family Therapy (3).F. A contextual study of legal and ethical issues related to the profession of marriage and family therapy. Topics include professional identity, scope of practice, professional organizations, licensure, ethical codes, confidentiality, legal responsibility and liabilities of clinical practice and research, family law, record keeping, reimbursement, and the business aspects of practice.
HPC 5754. Legal and Ethical Issues in Professional School Counseling (3).S. An exploration of ethical and legal standards, and applications specific to professional school counseling. General topics will include the ethical decision-making process, confidentiality, privileged communication, informed consent, duty to warn, dual relationships, record keeping, parental rights, the rights of minors, testifying in court, and testing. Special topics and the needs of special populations will be examined.
HPC 5790. Group Methods and Processes (3).F;S;SS. A study of group dynamics, experimentation in groups, leadership roles, and applicability to other settings. [Dual-listed with HPC 4790.]
HPC 5820. College Student Development Theories I (3).F. This course provides an overview of the cognitive theories of student development. Particular emphasis will be placed on utilizing theory to understand and describe student learning, human behavior and development over the life span. The course includes cognitive and moral development theories. A multicultural focus will be included in the study of these theories. This course is a prerequisite for HPC 5821.
HPC 5821. College Student Development Theories II (3).S. This course provides an overview of the psychosocial theories of student development. Particular emphasis will be placed on utilizing theory to understand and describe student learning, human behavior and development over the life span. The course includes psychosocial and identity theories. A multicultural focus will be included in the study of these theories. Prerequisite: HPC 5820.
HPC 5840. Human Relations and Interaction (3).F;S. Examines the key elements in effective interpersonal communication. Students will be exposed to one or more human relations models that are designed to improve their communication skills. Emphasis will be given to applying constructive methods of human relations in a variety of settings including business, schools, and social service agencies. [Dual-listed with HPC 4840.]
HPC 5850. Theory and Practice of Reality Therapy (3).On Demand. A basic course introducing the theory and practice of Reality Therapy in a variety of therapeutic settings. Emphasis will be placed on the principles and implications of control theory, including the fundamentals of the practice of Reality Therapy, and its relationship to the cycle of counseling.
HPC 5860. Dreamwork: Clinical Methods (3).S.Odd-numbered years. An in-depth study of dreamwork as a clinical method, including theoretical approaches to dreams, clinical issues and current trends, and cross-cultural perspectives on the role of dreams, myths, and symbols in psychological healing.
HPC 5870. Creative Process, Movement, and Therapy (3).F.Odd-numbered years. An examination of body awareness, creative expression, and movement in therapy. Particular attention will be paid to the concept of creative process and how it relates to human development, personality integration, and healing. [Dual-listed with DAN 4870.]
HPC 5900. Practicum (1-9).F;S. Practica are available in the areas given below according to the chosen curriculum. Some practicums may be repeated for additional credit when there is space and upon approval of the advisor and the departmental chair. Graded on an S/U basis.
- Practicum in Counseling: Professional practice provides for the application of theory and the development of counseling skills under supervision. These experiences will provide opportunities for students to counsel clients who represent the ethnic and demographic diversity of their community. Prerequisites CMHC: HPC 5120, HPC 5220, HPC 5225, HPC 5752, HPC 5790, and approval of department chairperson. Prerequisites PSC: HPC 5310, HPC 5790, HPC 5220, and approval of department chairperson.
- Practicum in College Student Development: An opportunity for on-the-job observation and limited practice in at least two student development functions/offices either on the ASU campus or in another area post-secondary institution. Open only to student development majors. Prior approval of the departmental chair.
- Practicum in Group Leadership: Supervised practice in group leadership. Prerequisites: HPC 5790, HPC 6720, and prior approval of the departmental chair.
HPC 5989. Graduate Research (1-9).F;S. This course is designed to provide access to University facilities for continuing graduate research at the master's and specialist's levels. Graded on an S/U basis. HPC 5989 does not count toward a degree.
HPC 5999. Thesis (1-4).F;S. Graded on an SP/UP basis until the thesis has been successfully defended and received final approval, at which time all grades will be changed to S.
HPC 6120. Developmental Assessment and Diagnosis in Counseling (3).F;S. An in-depth and critical examination of developmental assessment and diagnosis in a variety of counseling settings. Specific attention will be given to the interface of the assessment and diagnostic process, the sociocultural context of individuals, and an understanding of basic psychopharmacology within a developmental and humanistic framework. Prerequisites: HPC 5120 or HPC 5310 and registration is restricted to Clinical Mental Health and Professional School Counseling majors.
HPC 6160. Gestalt Therapy (3).F. An examination of the Gestalt Therapy model. The course combines experiential and conceptual approaches. Emphasis is placed on developing personal and unique styles of interventions within the framework of Gestalt Therapy.
HPC 6162. Systemic Gestalt Therapy (3).On Demand. An advanced course which focuses on the application of gestalt concepts within a systemic model. Prerequisite: HPC 6160 or permission of the instructor. Graded on an S/U basis.
HPC 6270. Marriage and Family Counseling: Clinical Issues (3).F. An examination of basic issues and special problems in the therapeutic intervention in families. Prerequisite: HPC 5270.
HPC 6271. Theories of Marriage and Family Therapy III (3).SS. A comprehensive survey of major models of marriage and family therapy with emphasis on the relationship of theory to practice.
HPC 6272. Marital and Couples Therapy (3).F.Odd-numbered years. This seminar examines key issues associated with effective marital and couples therapy. Emphasis is given to an overview of fundamental theoretical models of intimate relationships and models for effecting healing and growth in such relationships.
HPC 6280. Assessment and Diagnosis in Marriage and Family Therapy (3).S. A seminar designed to provide a background in diagnosis and assessment including skills necessary to conduct a relational assessment interview, as well as the development of assessment skills through the use of family sculpture, family genogram, role play, and exercises. Prerequisite: HPC 5271 or permission of the instructor.
HPC 6290. Child and Adolescent Therapy (3).F;S. The application of child development and counseling theories to the practice of counseling children and adolescents. Focus will be on clinical practice, diagnostic skills, play and art therapy, family systems interventions, parent training programs, and behavioral interventions.
HPC 6330. Assessment and Program Evaluation in Student Affairs (3).F. The focus will be on assessing outcomes of enrollment in post-secondary institutions, assessment methodologies used for exploring student outcomes, systematic program evaluation, and the application of student development theory to practice. Prerequisite: HPC 5340.
HPC 6340. Ecotherapy (3).On Demand. This course will examine emerging paradigms in psychology and counseling in systems theory, the nature of consciousness, and ecopsychology.
HPC 6350. Body/Mind (3).S.Even-numbered years. A study of the interrelationship of physical and mental functioning as it pertains to counseling, including the mind/body problem as a systematic issue in psychology, exploration of the current resurgence of interest in mind/body functioning relative to total well-being, and an overview of current uses of mind/body experiences as therapeutic techniques.
HPC 6355. Mindfulness Based Counseling (3).F. This course will introduce students to mindfulness based counseling modeled on the program developed at the University of Massachusetts Medical School's Stress Reduction Clinic. Within the context of educational and health care services, mindfulness is aimed at assisting individuals to develop an array of self-regulatory, selfcare skills. The effectiveness of mindfulness based interventions is predicated on providers who are substantively grounded in mindfulness meditation practice, hence the strong experiential component to the course.
HPC 6360. Therapy and the Expressive Arts (3).F;S. An examination of the relationship between artistic expression and individual mental health. Theories and techniques of various arts therapies will be studied relative to diagnosis and treatment as well as to personality integration and personal growth.
HPC 6365. Expressive Arts Summer Institute (3-9).SS. Variable content. Barring duplication a student may repeat the course and earn up to a total of nine semester hours. This intensive institute provides practicing therapists, counselors, graduate students, and artists opportunities to explore cutting edge practices in the integration of expressive arts in counseling. The Appalachian approach to Expressive Arts Therapy emphasizes the power of the arts to build community and support a space of temenos, where the arts can help us to access our individual and collective resources for living. This course will include theoretical background in Expressive Arts Therapy, as well as a variety of experiential large group, small group, and individual art making activities.
HPC 6366. EXA Child/Adolescents (3-6).SS. Variable content. Barring duplication a student may repeat the course and earn up to a total of six semester hours. This annual summer institute is designed to present a comprehensive and developmentally oriented approach for the application of play theories, techniques, and the creative/expressive arts to the process of counseling children and adolescents. The course will consist of class discussions, presentations, cooperative and group experiential learning activities, and "hands on" type of activities/projects which students will prepare and present. Students will learn techniques of play therapy, art, music, movement, creative dramatics, imagery, writing, and poetry for use in both the school and agency setting.
HPC 6370. Intermodal Expressive Arts (3).F;S. An examination of theories, techniques, and functions of psychotherapeutic approaches using intermodal expressive arts, emphasizing cross-cultural contexts of creative expression and human development. Prerequisite: HPC 6360.
HPC 6380. Therapeutic Writing (3).F.Even-numbered years. An exploration of writing and the therapeutic process. Students will experience a variety of methods in using the written word to enhance client change as well as for self-care for the therapist.
HPC 6390. Current Issues in Expressive Arts Therapy (3).S.Even-numbered years. An examination of current issues in expressive arts therapy, emphasizing cross-cultural contexts of creative expression and human development. Prerequisite: HPC 6360.
HPC 6410. Student Development Administration (3).F. An overview of organizational theories, management, and administration in student development practice, including budget and finance, governance and policy making, organizational change processes, process consultation, administrative uses of computers, and human resource development. Prerequisite: HPC 5410.
HPC 6451. Clinical Mental Health Counseling Seminar (3).On Demand. An examination of current issues and trends in mental health counseling, agency counseling, and rehabilitation counseling, focusing on the transition from clinical trainee to entry level practitioner in areas such as psychosocial assessment, prevention/education/intervention techniques, administration of programs, and supervision. Prerequisites: HPC 5120, HPC 5220, HPC 5752, HPC 5790; and registration is restricted to Clinical Mental Health Counseling majors. Prerequisite or corequisite: HPC 5900 (Practicum in Counseling).
HPC 6452. Seminar in Professional School Counseling (3).SS. This course is designed to provide opportunities for students to further develop knowledge and skills in order to deliver a comprehensive and developmental school counseling program. A wide variety of topics currently addressed in professional school counseling literature will be studied. Prerequisite: HPC 5310.
HPC 6500. Independent Study (1-4).On Demand.
HPC 6525. Advanced Systemic Multicultural Counseling (3).S. An exploration of counseling issues related to a culturally diverse client population. Prerequisite: HPC 5110.
HPC 6530-6549. Selected Topics (1-4).On Demand.
HPC 6570. The Appalachian Addictions Institute (3-9).SS. Variable content. Barring duplication, a student may repeat the course and earn up to a total of nine semester hours. This annual summer institute is designed to provide graduate students and working professionals with an opportunity for in-depth exploration of cutting-edge, clinical issues and topics within the addictions field. Graded on an S/U basis.
HPC 6620. School-Based Consultation (3).F. For school psychologists, counselors and other human service personnel in various fields who deal with parents and/or teachers in a consultative and educational capacity. The course will include a review of consultation models and theories of both a group and triadic nature. It will also provide an opportunity for role play which reflects actual consulting situations. Emphasis will be placed on concerns related to academic deficit, behavioral problems in the school and home, and family stress. (Same as PSY 6620.)
HPC 6710. Human Sexuality (3).S. Classical and contemporary theories of sexual identity and behavior, family planning, reproduction, emotionality, intimacy, and values are studied. Special attention is given to the work of Kinsey, Hooker, and Masters and Johnson, and most recent researchers. Attention is given to futurity, especially as it pertains to current practices and values regarding family planning, general health, sexuality and one's self-esteem. Counseling strategies will be considered pertaining to many currently reported sexual dysfunctions such as impotence, premature ejaculation and lack of sexual response.
HPC 6720. Group Counseling/Therapy (3).On Demand. Theory and practice of group counseling/therapy, including group process, leadership style, and outcome. Prerequisite: HPC 5790 or equivalent.
HPC 6730. Sexual Abuse Counseling (3).S. An in-depth examination of the subject of sexual abuse counseling. The course provides an overview of the issues involved in sexual abuse and relates these to the assessment and treatment processes used by counselors and other helping professionals.
HPC 6750. College Student Development Institute (3-9).SS. This annual summer institute is designed to allow college administrators, counselors, instructors, other student development personnel, and graduate students to consider a variety of issues facing students and student development specialists. There is variable content each summer with the theme and topics reflecting current issues and needs. Barring duplication, a student may repeat the course and earn up to a total of nine semester hours. Graded on an S/U basis.
HPC 6770. Current Issues and Special Populations in Addictions Counseling (3).On Demand. Current issues in the addictions field as they impact both counselors and their clients are addressed. Both practical and theoretical orientations of working with addicted clients are discussed. An emphasis is placed in the course on working with rural and minority clients.
HPC 6900. Internship (1-18).F;S;SS. Advanced students in counselor education will have supervised experiences in specific functions of the counselor education field in a public school system, post-secondary institution, or other appropriate agency. In addition to those listed below, other specific experiences will be developed and approved by the student and the student's advisory committee. May be taken up to a total of eighteen semester hours with permission of the departmental chair. Graded on an S/U basis. Prerequisite: prior approval of the departmental chair.
- Internship in Professional School Counseling: Practice in the application of skills used in counseling elementary/middle/secondary school youth. Setting to be decided upon in consultation with the internship supervisor. A minimum of 600 clock hours of work (full-time) as a counselor in the school will be required. Graded on an S/U basis. Prerequisites: HPC 5140, HPC 5210, HPC 5220, HPC 5225, HPC 5310, HPC 5754, HPC 5790, HPC 5900, HPC 6620/PSY 6620, admission to candidacy, and approval of the departmental chair.
- Internship in Clinical Mental Health Counseling: On-the-job experience will be emphasized through placement of students in appropriate human service agencies. Includes practice in the counseling and other helping skills used in various agencies. Available primarily for Clinical Mental Health Counseling majors. Graded on an S/U basis. Prerequisites: HPC 5120, HPC 5220, HPC 5225, HPC 5752, HPC 5790, HPC 5900, HPC 6451 and approval of departmental chairperson.
- Internship in College Student Development: On-the-job experience will be emphasized through placement of students in specific student development functions/offices either on the ASU campus or in another area post-secondary institution. Available primarily for college student development majors. Graded on an S/U basis. Prerequisites: HPC 5410, HPC 5900 (Practicum in College Student Development) and/or HPC 5900 (Practicum in Counseling), and prior approval of the departmental chair.
- Internship in Marriage and Family Therapy (3+3+6).F;S;SS.: Supervised practice in the application of skills used in systemic individual, couple and family therapy. Open only to marriage and family therapy majors. Graded on an S/U basis. Prior approval of the departmental chair.